Some points regarding the chains of Ahaadeeth…

Bismillaahir Rahmaanir Raheem.

Anyone who studies or reads a Hadeeth which contains its chain of narration (Sanad) will always come across the following terms, and therefore it is important to understand what it is used for:

1: Haddathanaa -حدثنا
2: Akhbaranaa – أخبرنا
3: Amba’anaa – أنبأنا

1: Haddathanaa is used when an ‘Aalim narrates a Hadeeth and the student listens.

In certain kitaabs some printing companies shorten this term to just being Thanaa ثنا, but the meaning is exactly the same, it’s just an abbreviated form of the word.

2: Akhbaranaa is used when a student reads a Hadeeth to an ‘Aalim and the ‘Aalim authenticates it.

This is sometimes shortened to look like Anaa انا.

3: Amba’anaa is used when one student hears another student reading a Hadeeth to an ‘Aalim and the ‘Aalim authenticates it.

These are the three terms which have been used by the Muhadditheen in their books, you will also find some ‘Ulamaa using terms other than the ones mentioned here, but they are simply synonyms of these three terms.

Another thing is the usage of a Haa ح in some chains, this Haa is short for Tahweel تحويل, it is used to signify a switch in the Sanad (chain) to a new chain.

This is found alot in the books of Hadeeth like Saheeh Al-Bukhaari etc, where Imaam Bukhaari Rahimahullaah will begin narrating a Hadeeth with one chain, and then switch to another chain from different narrators narrating that same Hadeeth to further strengthen it by it now having two chains of narration.

Some may find this of use also:

U.S. soldiers’ ‘kill team’ killed Afghanis, used body parts in poker games

Rogue U.S.

soldiers snipped the pinky off an Afghan teen they killed for kicks – and later used it to wage a bet while playing spades, a blockbuster expose reports.

That’s one of the shocking stories in a new Rolling Stone magazine expose of an Army “kill team” that targeted innocent Afghan civilians for death.

Staff Sgt. Calvin Gibbs, the squad leader and main target of the Army’s ongoing war crimes investigation, allegedly sliced the finger off Gul Mudin – the approximately 15-year-old Afghan that Spc. Jeremy Morlock and Pfc. Andrew Holmes are accused of killing.

“When it came time for their wager, Morlock and Holmes said they would bet a finger,” Mark Boal reported MOnday in the magazine. “Then they tossed the finger that Gibbs had sliced from Mudin’s body on the card pile.”

Seventeen revolting photographs taken by the soldiers – including one of a severed head and another showing a pair of blown off legs – accompany the article by Boal, who won an Oscar for writing “The Hurt Locker” screenplay.

Those awful images were published just days after another batch of gory pictures taken by the soldiers appeared in the German newsmagazine Der Spiegel.

The Pentagon has already condemned the alleged atrocities as “repugnant to us as human beings and contrary to the standards and values of the United States Army,” and apologized to the Afghan people “for the distress these photos cause.”

Morlock, shown in several pictures holding a dead man’s head by the hair, has already pleaded guilty to murder during his court-martial.

The troubled 22-year-old from Wasilla, Alaska – a pal and hockey teammate of Sarah Palin’s son, Track – is expected to testify against Gibbs, Holmes and other platoon members.

Fearful of handing a propaganda weapon to the Taliban, Boal reports the Army “launched a massive effort to find every file and pull the pictures out of circulation before they could touch off a scandal on the scale of Abu Ghraib.”

Abu Ghraib was the Iraqi prison when U.S. soldiers took pictures of themselves humiliating prisoners.

“By suppressing the photos, however, the Army may also have been trying to keep secret evidence that the killings of civilians went beyond a few men in 3rd Platoon,” Boal reported.

It is a violation of Army standards to take photos of dead.

Boal also reports that the bored soldiers blew their minds by smoking copious amounts of hashish and beat up suspected “snitches” who complained.

In one case, Boal reports that after Gibbs directed the beating of one soldier he “reached into his pocket and took out a bit of cloth.”

“Unfolding it, he tossed two severed fingers on the floor, with bits of skin still hanging off the bone,” Boal reported.

Then Morlock warned the beaten soldier that he would end up like “that guy” if he didn’t “shut the hell up.”

U.S. soldiers’ ‘kill team’ killed Afghanis, used body parts in poker games: report – New York Daily News

The spelling convention

The spelling convention

For many centuries in England people spelt words the way they wished and even chose several ways of spelling a word in the same piece of writing. Although there were periods when English spelling was relatively stable and various attempts were made to standardise spelling, it was not really until Samuel Johnson’s dictionary was published in 1755 that spelling patterns became fixed. Dr Johnson wasn’t always consistent in his dictionary and is responsible for some of the curious spelling patterns that cause difficulties for today’s spellers; for example, he included a ‘p’ in ‘receipt’ but not in ‘conceit’ or ‘deceit’. However, this dictionary and its successors did provide a reference so that people could check their spelling. Once spelling became standardised the ability to spell according to convention became important.

Page 12 of Getting to grips with spelling.