When the first Jamaah in the Masjid is finished and later more people arrive can they make a second Jamaah and pray? What is the ruling according to the book and the sunnah?
Making a second Jamaah in one masjid has a difference of opinion from the salaf us saliheen some Imams for example, Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and Ishaaq Ibn Rahywayyah and other have gone towards a position that a second Jamaah is permissible where as Imaam Maalik and Imaam Shafi’ee and Ashaab ur-ray (People of opinion ie the founders of the Hanafee madhab) held the position that the second Jamaah is makrooh (disliked). It is the saying of Imaam Shafi’ee that the second Jamaah is makrooh in a masjid in which the Imaam and the Muadhin are fixed. (Kitaab ul Umm of Shafiee (1\136, 137). Where as it is the saying of Ahnaf Ashaab Ur-Rayy (The companions of the people of opinion) that it is Makrooh Tahreemi like it has been mentioned in Fataawa Shaamee. (Of Ibn Aabideen (10th Century Hijree)
THE PROOFS OF THE FIRST GROUP:
“It is narrated from Abu Sa’eed Khudri that the Messenger of Allah saw a person who was praying alone in the masjid so the Messenger of Allaah said,“Who will take part in transaction and pray with him”. It is in the second narration that a man entered the masjid at the time when the jammat had finished so the Messenger of Allaah said, “Who will give him sadaqa and pray with him,” so an individual stood up and prayed with him.”
(See Al-Muntaqa li Ibn Jarood (no. 330), Abu Dawood (1/157 no.574), Tirmidhee (1/427 no. 220), Daarimee (1\258, 318), Musnad Ahmad (3\5, 64, 85,5\45), Musnad Abee Ya’ala (2/321), Ibn Hibbaan (no’s 436, 437, 438),Tabaranee As-Sagheer (1/218, 238), Baihaqee (3/69), Al-Muhalla (4/238),Haakim (1/209), Sharh us-Sunnah (3/436), Ibn Abee Shaybah (2/322), Ibn Khuzaimah (1/632), Nasab ar Ra’yah (2/57), Tadween Fee Akhbaar Qazween Lil
Rafa’ee (2/258) Imaam Haakim Said it is Saheeh and Dhahabee agreed with him
This same Hadeeth is narrated in Sunan DaarQutnee (1/277), From Anas Ibn Maalik. About which Allaamah Nimawee Hanafee said in Athar us-Sunnan (1/267) “Isnaaduhu saheehun”, Allaamah Zaylee Hanafee In Nasb ar-Ra’yah (2/58) “Wassandu jayidan”. Like wise Haafidh Ibn Hajr al-Asqaalaanee also said that the Isnaad is good (Ad-Daraayah (1/173)
It is in Baihaqee that Abu Bakr (Radhiallaahu Anhu) was person who prayed with him
Allaamah Zail’ee Hanafee in Nasb Ar-Ra’yah and Allaamah Suyootee in “Quwwat al-Mugtadhee” also said the same.
The Hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree was considered Hasan by Imaam Tirmidhee and Imaam Haakim, Dhahabee and Ibn Hazm said it was Saheeh. Imaam Baghawee said after this Hadeeth in his book Sharh us-Sunnah, “This Hadeeth proves (Abu Saeed Al Khudri) that the individual who prayed in the Jamaah once, it is permissible for him to pray with other people a second time. Like wise it is permissible to establish the second Jamaah. This is the saying of many Companions and great Taab’ieen.”
Imaam Ibn Qudamaah said, “Repeating The Jamaah in the masjid is not Makrooh (Disliked), it means that when the Imaam of the local Masjid has finished the congregational prayer and the people for the second Jamaah are present, then it is Mustahab (Recommended) for them to pray in congregation. This is the saying of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood, Ataa, Nakh’aee, Hasan, Qataadah and Ishaaq Ibn Rahawaihah” (Al-Mugnee (3/10)
After this Imaam Ibn Qudaamah also mentioned the Hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed. “It is narrated from Abu Hurairah the Messenger of Allaah said, “The reward of the congregational prayer is 25 times more than the prayer said alone.” (Bukhaari with Fath al-Baari (2/299), Muslim with Sharh Nawawee (5/151), Muwatta of Imaam Maalik (1/29), Nisaa’e (1/24, 2/103), Tirmidhee (no. 216), Ibn Maajah (no. 787), Daarimee (1/235), Abu Awaanah (2/2), Ibn Khuzaimah
(2/364), Ibn Hibbaan (3/381,382), Baihaaqee (3/60) and Sharh Us-Sunnah (3/340)
In the same way the Hadeeth of Abdullah Ibn Umar (Radhiallaahu Anhu) mentions the reward of 27 times. (Bukhaari with Fath al-Baari (2/131).
This Hadeeth in its generality includes the first and second Jamaah from which we find out that if the first Jamaah of a person is finished then he can offer his prayer with the second Jamaah and obtain the reward. “It is narrated from Abu Uthmaan al-Ja’ad that Anas Ibn Maalik passed by the Masjid of Banee Tha’labah and said “Have you prayed.” And is said yes that was the morning prayer. He ordered one person to call the Adhaan and Iqaamah, then he led his companions in prayer.”
(Taaleeqan (Footnote form) in Bukhaari (2/131) with Fath al-Baari, Musnad Abee Ya’ala (7/315 no. 4355), Ibn Abee Shaybah (1/148, 2/321), Baihaqee (3/70), Majma’a az-Zawaa’id (2/4), al-Mataalib al-Aaliyyah (1/118, no. 426), Tagleeq at-Ta’leeq (2/276), Abdur
Razzaaq (2/291), Tabaqaat al-Muhadditheen Li Abee ash-Shaykh (1/402,403) in
“Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood entered the Masjid and the people had prayed, so he led Alqamah, Masrooq and Aswad in prayer.” (Ibn Abee Shaybah, Abkaar al-Manan (p. 253) Its chain is authentic, Mir’aah Sharh Mishkaat (4/104) From these AHadeeth and Aathaar we find that performing the second Jamaah in the Masjid is permissible without and this was the position of the Major Companions (Raa).
The Proofs of those who consider it Makrooh.
It is narrated from Abu Bakrah “The Messenger came from the outskirts of Madinah and he wanted to offer the prayer. He observed that the people had offered their prayers. So he went to his house and gathered his family members and then prayed with them.” (al-Kaamil Li Ibn Adiyy (6/2398), Majma’a Az-Zawaa’id (2/48), Tabaranee al-Awsat (no. 4379), al-Imaam az-Zamah, al-Allaamah , al-Muhaddith, al-Faqeeh, Umdah tul Ulama,
Abu Abdur Rahmaan Muhammad Naasir ud Deen al-Albaanee (Rh) said its chain is Hasan in Tamaam al-Minnah (1/155). And Allamaah Haithamee said Tabaraanee have narrated it in Mu’ajam al-Kabeer and Awsth, its narrators are trustworthy.
The conclusion that is drawn form this Hadeeth is that if the second Jamaah was permissible then the Messenger of Allaah would not have abandoned the virtues of praying in the Masjid ie he would have prayed in the Masjid because the reward is greater in praying in the Prophets Masjid than in a normal Masjid.
Al-Allaamah, al-Muhaddith, Shaykh ul-Hindh Ubaidullaah Rahmaanee and Mubaarakpooree said concerning this, “Taking this as a proof for the prohibition (Ie it being Makrooh) of the second Jamaah in the Masjid is objectionable, because this Hadeeth is not a text for him leading them in prayer in his house rather there is also the question that he may have led
them in prayer in the Masjid. His going to his house was for gathering his family members, not for doing the Jamaah. (see Miraat)
If it is accepted that he did lead his family members in prayer at his house, then it still does not prove the prohibition for performing the second Jamaah but the deductive point that is proven is that if a man was to go to a Masjid where the Jamaah had finished then he should not pray in the Masjid but rather he should go home and pray with his family. Any way saying that praying in a second Jamaah is Makrooh (disliked) is not proven from this Hadeeth like it does not prove the prohibition of the individual person who comes to pray in the Masjid (after the Jamaah is finished). If this Hadeeth is taken for the second Jamaah being Makrooh,
then this also proves that the individual person must not pray in the Masjid.” (Mir’aat, The Sharh of Mishkaat (4/105)
The saying of Al-Imaam Al-Muhaddith Abu Abdur-Rahmaan Muhammad Naasir ud deen al-Albaanee (Alyhee Rahamatullaah) that the chain of this Hadeeth is “Hasan”, is objectionable because one of the narrator of the Hadeeth “Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed” is a Mudallis and he would perform “Tadless at-Taswiyyah” which is a big form of Tadlees and his hearing (from the teachers or Shuyookh) is not continuously clear. Tadlees at-Taswiyyah, is A Tadlees of the Isnaad and it is defined as, when there are three narrators, for example the first one is reliable and trustworthy, the second narrator is Daeef and the third one is reliable and
trustworthy. A Mudallis of the Taswiyyah type omits the second person (The Da’eef one) from the chain and mentions the name of the 1st and 2nd person only. (See Al-Kifaayah Fee Ilm Ar-Rawayah (p.364), Nawawee in Al-Irshaad (p.94), Haafidh Araqee in At-Taqayyid Wal-Aeydah (pp.95-96) who also said this is the worst type of Tadlees)
The Stronger Opinion Regarding of Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed.
Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed performed this type of Tadlees, See Al-Kifaayah (p.364), Jaam’e At-Tahseel (p. 102-103) of Imaam E’laaae, At-Tabayan (p. 12), At-Taqayyid Wal-Aeydah (pp. 95-96) and Al-Fiyyah al-Hadeeth Ma’a Fath al-Mugheeth (p. 84-85) of Abdur-Raheem al-Araaqee Ibn Abee Haatim said, “Baqiyyah was the person who performed it the most (ie Tadlees at-Taswiyyah).” (Elal Al-Hadeeth (2/161), Fath al-Mugheeth (p. 84), Al-Fiyyah (p. 364)
Imaam Dhahabee quotes, that Abul Hasan Ibn Qattaan said, “Baqiyyah would perform Tadlees from Da’eef people and would hold it permissible and if this correctly proven from him, then this is such an action that it will make his trustworthiness Faasid (Null and void). Imaam Dhahabee writes concerning him “By Allaah this is correct concerning him, that he would do this.” (Meezaan (1/339), Tahdheeb (1/419)
Haafidh Ibn Hajr has mentioned him in the fourth category of the Mudalliseen. (Tabaqaat al-Mudalliseen (p. 14, 49) for further proofs of him being a Mudallis see (At-Tabayan Lisabt (p. 12, 16) of Ibn al-Ajamee, Kitaab al-Mudalliseen (p. 37) of Abu Zar’ah, Manzoomah of Dhahabee and Manzoomah of al-Maqdisee Bi-Aahar At-Tabaqaat- Ithaaf al-Ansaaree (p. 6-11-20), At-Tadlees d: Masfar p. 54, 60 and 369)
Imaam Ibn Hazm said, “Such an individual is a fabricator and is open Fisq, it is therefore Waajib to throw away all his AHadeeth whether Tadlees is reported in them or not, even if he says he heard….All his narration’s are rejected and not accepted and his trustworthiness is exterminated because he deceives the people of Islaam.” Imaam Sakhawee said, “From amongst these people is Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed.” (Al-Ahkaam Fee Usool al-Ahkaam (1/142), Fath al-Mugheeth (1/227) of Sakhawee.
Imaam Haakim says, “Baqiyyah Ibn Waleed has narrated such AHadeeth from the creation of Allaah that their Names, lineage, reliability are untraceable.” (Ma’arifah Uloom al-Hadeeth (p. 132)
Imaam Sufyaan Ibn Uyainah called him Abul Ajab (The father of amazement/surprise)” (Ad-Dhu’faa of Uqailee (1/163), Meezaan, (1/332), Tahdheeb (1/418)
Abu Haatim said “He is not worthy of Proof.” (Meezaan (1/332), Tahdheeb (1/417)
Imaam Ibn Khuzaimah said, “I do not use Baqiyyah as Proof.” (Meezaan (1/332), Tahdheeb (1/418)
Dhahabee said, “Baqiyyah is the person of weird, odd and munkar narrations. Abdul Haqq has said he is not proof in many narrations” (Meezaan (1/332)
Imaam Ibn Adiyy said, “Baqiyyah opposes the reliable people in some AHadeeth.” (Meezaan (1/337), Al-Kaamil (2/512).
Abu MusHar (d. 210H) who was a great Scholar of Hadeeth from Shaam, He was put through a lot of trials for rejecting the Aqeedah of the creation of the Qur’aan by the Khaaliph. (See Tareekh al-Baghdaad (11/72) of Khateeb, Al-Ibar Fee Khabar Min Ghabar (1/374) of Dhahabee, Tadhkirrah Tal-Huffaadh (1/381) of Dhahabee, Tahdheeb at-Tahdheeb (6/98) of Ibn Hajr
Abu MusHar said “The AHadeeth of Baqiyyah are not clean, beware of them” (See Meezaan al-Ei’tidaal Fee Naqad Ar-Rijaal (1/332) of Imaam Dhahabee (d.748), Tareekh al-Baghdaad (7/124), Tahdheeb (1/417) The narration of Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood from Ibraaheem that Alqamah al-Aswad went with Ibn Mas’ood to the masjid where they found the people had already prayed, so he took them back to the house, where he led them in prayer.” “Abdur-Razzaaq (2/409 no. 3883) from him Tabaraanee in Mu’jam al-Kabeer no. 9380)
This narration contains Hamaad Ibn Abee Suleimaan who was forgetful (See Majma Az-Zawaa’id (1/119, 120) and a also a Mudallis, (Tabaqaat al-Mudalliseen). This narration is like “on the authority, on the authority of” ie Aan Aan and such a narration is Da’eef. So only three narrators are taken as proof before the forgetting of Hamaad, Allaamah Haithamee said,
“The narrations of Hamaad that will be accepted are those which were narrated from him by narrators, before his forgetting. For example Shu’bah, Sufyaan ath-Thawree and Hishaam Dastawai, and whoever apart from them (Ie these three) narrates from him will be after his forgetting.” (Majma az-Zawaa’id (1/125).
Approximately this has also been mentioned by Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (See Sharh Elal Tirmidhee of Ibn Rajab p.326). Mu’amar narrated this from Hamaad therefore it is not a proof.
It has been established authentically above that Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood prayed the second Jamaah in the masjid and the narration of prohibition is Da’eef. Also the affirmatory action takes precedence over the negatory action and therefore with these two points in mind there is permissibility of praying in a second Jamaah in the masjid.
Shaykh Ubaidullaah Rehmaanee (Rahimahullaah) said, “According to us the better opinion is that if a person reached the masjid and the Jamaah with the established Imaam had elapsed and he did not pray due to a reason, then it is permissible and Mubah (Recommended) that he pray with the second Jamaah.” (Mir’aat, The Sharh of Mishkaat (4/107)
However it must be stressed this opinion does not permit missing the first Jamaah and praying with the second due to laziness or any other invalid reason and utmost care and determination must be maintained in order to reach the first Jamaah
By Abu Khuzaimah Ansaari